This letter, sent to Luria and thousands of other scientists in the United States, initiated Pauling's best-known crusade to combat nuclear weapons. In it, he asked Luria to join others in an "Appeal by American Scientists" urging the cessation of nuclear weapons tests. Within ten days of its drafting, the letter received over two thousand positive responses. Pauling released the appeal to the public on 3 June 1957, and subsequently sent a copy to President Eisenhower. The president lamented the interference of "scientists that seem to be out of their own field of competence" in U.S. nuclear policies. On 15 January 1958, Pauling presented to the United Nations another petition signed by 9,235 scientists from around the world protesting nuclear testing. Bowing to increased pressure in both countries, in 1963 the U.S. and Soviet Union signed the Partial Test Ban Treaty, which banned nuclear tests in the atmosphere, underwater, and in space. In 1962, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize--he had earlier won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry--for his efforts to end atmospheric testing.
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