(Critical) This program, one of a series on Leaders in American Medicine, presents an interview with Owsei Temkin, Professor Emeritus of History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Temkin is interviewed by Dr. Lloyd G. Stevenson, Professor of History of Medicine at the same institution. Dr. Temkin was brought from Leipzig to Johns Hopkins in 1932 by Henry Sigerist who himself had just been appointed professor of history of medicine. The discussion first focuses on some of the medical personalities at Hopkins, especially William Osler and William Welch, and then turns to Dr. Temkin's special interests in the history of medicine, namely the role of the sciences or the scientific process in the evolution of medicine as a profession. History, according to Temkin, serves as an orientation in making choices for the future. History in many respects supplements the scientific view of man with a humanistic view, e.g. the historical role of the physician in health and the combination of a compassionate and scientific approach to the patient. The usefulness of history to medicine is illustrated by Dr. Temkin with examples and vignettes.